Since the prime time period of hard bop was a decade later than bop, these differences were a logical evolution and one can think of hard bop as bop of the '50s and '60s.
By the second half of the s, the influence of the avant garde was being felt and some of the more adventurous performances of the hard bop stylists such as. Bill's guitar playing was the opposite of pop. Introduced by Columbia in , it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. Apart from a few relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound , it remained the standard format for record albums until its gradual replacement from the s to the early 21st century , first by compact discs and then by streaming media.
At the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for home use were made of an abrasive and therefore noisy shellac compound, employed a much larger groove, and played at approximately 78 revolutions per minute rpm , limiting the playing time of a inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side.
Each side of a inch LP could play for about 22 minutes. Although the LP was suited to classical music because of its extended continuous playing time, it also allowed a collection of ten or more pop music recordings to be put on a single disc.
The use of the word "album" persisted for the one-disc LP equivalent. The prototype of the LP was the soundtrack disc used by the Vitaphone motion picture sound system , developed by Western Electric and introduced in Unlike their smaller LP descendants, they were made with the same large "standard groove" used by 78s. Unlike conventional records, the groove started at the inside of the recorded area near the label and proceeded outward toward the edge.
Like 78s, early soundtrack discs were pressed in an abrasive shellac compound and played with a single-use steel needle held in a massive electromagnetic pickup with a tracking force of five ounces 1. By mid all motion picture studios were recording on optical soundtracks , but sets of soundtrack discs, mastered by dubbing from the optical tracks and scaled down to 12 inches to cut costs, were made as late as for distribution to theaters still equipped with disc-only sound projectors.
The desirability of longer continuous playing time soon led to the adoption of the Vitaphone soundtrack disc format. Some transcriptions were, like soundtrack discs, pressed with the commencement at the center of the disc and the needle moving outward in the era of shellac pressings and steel needles, needle wear considerations dictated an 'inside start' for such a long recording ; conversely, some commenced at the edge. Longer programs, which required several disc sides, pioneered the system of recording odd-numbered sides inside-out and even-numbered sides outside-in so that the sound quality would match from the end of one side to the start of the next.
Although a pair of turntables was used, to avoid any pauses for disc-flipping, the sides had to be pressed in a hybrid of manual and automatic sequencing, arranged in such a manner that no disc being played had to be turned over to play the next side in the sequence.
Instead of a three-disc set having the 1—2, 3—4 and 5—6 manual sequence, or the 1—6, 2—5 and 3—4 automatic sequence for use with a drop-type mechanical record changer, broadcast sequence would couple the sides as 1—4, 2—5 and 3—6.
Some transcriptions were recorded with a vertically modulated "hill and dale" groove. This was found to allow deeper bass because turntable rumble was laterally modulated in early radio station turntables and also an extension of the high-end frequency response. Neither of these was necessarily a great advantage in practice because of the limitations of AM broadcasting.
Today we can enjoy the benefits of those higher-fidelity recordings, even if the original radio audiences could not. Initially, transcription discs were pressed only in shellac, but by pressings in RCA Victor's vinyl-based "Victrolac" were appearing.
Other plastics were sometimes used. By the late s, vinyl was standard for nearly all kinds of pressed discs except ordinary commercial 78s, which continued to be made of shellac. In the late s, magnetic tape recorders were adopted by the networks to pre-record shows or repeat them for airing in different time zones, but inch vinyl pressings continued to be used into the early s for non-network distribution of prerecorded programming.
Use of the LP's microgroove standard began in the late s, and in the s the size of discs was reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically indistinguishable from ordinary LPs. Unless the quantity required was very small, pressed discs were a more economical medium for distributing high-quality audio than tape, and CD mastering was, in the early years of that technology, very expensive, so the use of LP-format transcription discs continued into the s.
RCA Victor introduced an early version of a long-playing record for home use in September They were to be played with a special "Chromium Orange" chrome-plated steel needle.
The inch discs, mostly used for popular and light classical music, were normally pressed in shellac, but the inch discs, mostly used for "serious" classical music, were normally pressed in Victor's new vinyl-based Victrolac compound, which provided a much quieter playing surface.
They could hold up to 15 minutes per side. Beethoven's Fifth Symphony , performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski , was the first inch recording issued. The New York Times wrote, "What we were not prepared for was the quality of reproduction Unfortunately for Victor, it was downhill from there. The dubs were audibly inferior to the original 78s. Record sales in the US had dropped from a high of Except for a few recordings of background music for funeral parlors, the last of the issued titles had been purged from the company's record catalog by the end of the decade.
The failure of the new product left RCA Victor with a low opinion of the prospects for any sort of long-playing record, influencing product development decisions during the coming decade.
CBS Laboratories head research scientist Peter Goldmark led Columbia's team to develop a phonograph record that would hold at least 20 minutes per side. Research began in , was suspended during World War II, and then resumed in All inch pressings were of grams vinyl. Columbia may have planned for the Bach album ML to be the first since the releases came in alphabetical order by composer.
There is also a CD of this album on the market. When the LP was introduced in , the 78 was the conventional format for phonograph records. By , 78s still accounted for slightly more than half of the units sold in the United States, and just under half of the dollar sales. Canada and the UK continued production into , while India, the Philippines, and South Africa produced 78s until , with the last holdout, Argentina, continuing until The popularity of the LP ushered in the " Album Era " of English-language popular music, beginning in the s, as performers took advantage of the longer playing time to create coherent themes or concept albums.
But for the '70s it will remain the basic musical unit, and that's OK with me. Although the popularity of LPs began to decline in the late s with the advent of Compact Cassettes , and later compact discs , the LP survives as a format to the present day. Vinyl LP records enjoyed a resurgence in the early s. It was introduced by RCA Victor in To compete with the LP, boxed albums of 45s were issued, along with EP extended play 45s, which squeezed two or even three selections onto each side.
Audio is not great due to surface noise and scratches. The record may have a stick or a skip. Records in this condition are those you might purchase to fill a hole in your collection until a better copy comes along. More useful as a Frisbee. I try not to sell records in this condition. Please see our other listings as we have many related items and various other treasures you may be interested in!!!
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What do the different formats mean? LPs measure a foot across and spin at just over 33 rotations per minute. A vinyl LP can hold up to an hour of music on each side, so they are a popular format for albums.
JoJolkree Use of the LP's microgroove standard began in the late s, Various - For The Ladies (Vinyl in the s the size of discs was reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically indistinguishable from ordinary LPs. Released in May on Polydor catalog no. April 4, It was discernible by some listeners throughout certain recordings but a quiet passage followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the Various - For The Ladies (Vinyl sound occurring 1. InColumbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side. Retrieved August 12, The failure of the new product left RCA Victor with a low opinion of the prospects for any sort of long-playing record, Various - For The Ladies (Vinyl, influencing product development decisions during the coming decade.
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